Cyber Security

Cyber security, also known as information technology security, refers to the protection of computer systems, networks and sensitive information from unauthorised access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction. This includes protection against cyber attacks such as hacking and malware, but also natural disasters, power outages and human error.

The goal of cyber security is to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information and systems. Confidentiality ensures that only authorised persons can access sensitive information. Integrity ensures that information cannot be changed without authorisation. Availability ensures that authorised persons can access information and systems when they need to.

Cyber security encompasses a range of practices, technologies and controls used to protect systems and information from cyber attacks. Some examples are:

  • Firewalls: These are hardware or software systems that control incoming and outgoing network traffic and can be configured to block unauthorised access.
  • Encryption: This converts plain text into code to protect information from unauthorised access.
  • Antivirus software: This is a programme that scans a computer or network for malware and attempts to remove it.
  • Two-factor authentication: This is a method of confirming a user's claimed identity by requiring them to provide two or more proofs of an authentication mechanism.
  • Security incident response plan: This is a plan that describes the steps an organisation should take in the event of a security incident.
  • Training and awareness programmesThese are programmes that train staff and users on how to recognise and prevent cyber threats.

The field of cyber security is rapidly evolving as technology advances and new cyber threats emerge. Organisations and individuals need to stay informed about the latest cyber threats and best practices to protect against them.